Swimming Pool Fencing

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Pool legislation

New legislation - new responsibilities

As of 1 January 2017, responsibilities for pool owners changed.

Pool safety barriers are now regulated by the Building Act 2004 and the new Building Code Clause F9 - Restricting Access to Residential Pools, which took effect from 1 January 2017.

This clause has the requirement to prevent unsupervised access by children under five years of age to residential pools. It requires barriers around pools to restrict unsupervised access by children. Barriers can include gates and suitably constructed doors. Some small heated pools may have a removable cover rather than a surrounding barrier.

F9/AS1 provides the Acceptable Solution for swimming pool barriers in general.

F9/AS2 provides the Acceptable Solution for covers which may be used on above ground small heated pools.

The Building Act now requires residential pools to be inspected every three years by territorial authorities or independently qualified pool inspectors (IQPIs).

Why does my pool need to be inspected?

It is now a legislative requirement under the Building Act 2004, for all residential pools to be inspected at least once every three years.

We will let you know in writing when an inspection is due.

Components of pool fencing, such as self-closing and self-latching devices, can deteriorate over time and stop operating as required. The inspections will ensure these components continue to operate to the required level of compliance.

See Building Act 2004 section 162D periodic inspections of residential pools.

Do I need to be present for the inspection?

No, as long as we can access the area where the pool is located. We will notify you of the outcome of the inspection, and if we identify any problems, we'll give you time to fix them and work with you to get the pool compliant.

What is the cost of a pool inspection?

Pool inspections in the Waimakariri District are free.

Do all pools need a barrier?

No. If your pool is within the following criteria, you do not need a pool safety barrier.

  • If the maximum depth of water in the pool is less than 400mm (such as a shallow paddling pool). Please note a responsible adult should supervise the use of paddling pools at all times.
  • If people are employed specifically to supervise the pool when it is in use, and the entire pool facility is locked at all other times.
  • If your pool has smooth vertical walls that are 1200mm or more high, and there is a 1.2m clear zone all around the pool, with no permanent steps or objects that would enable a small child to climb into the pool. Please note that any permanent steps would need to be fenced and gated in accordance with legislative requirements.

What are the legal requirements of a pool barrier?

Residential pools, including indoor swimming pools that can hold 400mm depth of water or more, are required to have compliant physical barriers that restrict access to the pool by unsupervised children under 5 years of age. See F9/AS1 Residential pool barriers.

The legal requirements are:

  • Barriers must restrict access by unsupervised children under five years
  • Barriers must have no permanent projections that could assist climbing
  • Gates must be self-closing and open away from the pool area

Where a building forms all or part of an immediate pool area barrier:

  • Doors must be self-closing after use or emit an audible warning when open
  • The latch must not be readily accessible by children under five years
  • Windows must be constructed or positioned to restrict the passage of children

What happens if I do not comply with good fencing legislation

Failure to meet compliance with the Building Act 2004 will mean the Council can issue pool owners with a Notice to Fix (NTF). A NTF is issued for disregarding or failing to comply with the Building Act (for example failing to restrict access to a residential pool; failing to obtain a building consent).

If you don’t contact us to arrange an inspection or refuse access, a Notice to Fix will be issued and an Infringement Notice and fine may follow.

Building Code Clause F9 - means of restricting access to residential pools provides more information about pool fencing requirements.

For additional guidance refer to the safety guidance for pool owners.

If you have any questions around inspections or regulations under the Building Act, please contact us on 03 311 8906.

Swimming pool registration

After completing the online swimming pool registration form, our team will be in touch to arrange for a building inspector to check and confirm that the pool and/or fencing are compliant.

Practical pool fencing compliance

The barrier

Fenced spa pool

Barriers not on a property boundary

  • The barrier should be a minimum of 1.2 metres high
  • All the materials used must be sturdy
  • The barrier must be built in such a way that a child aged five or under will not be able to climb over, squeeze through or crawl under it from the outside
  • The barrier can be of vertical pales, posts or panels which must be no more than 100 mm apart
  • Any bracing, supports, wires, rails or rods which are not vertical must be positioned in such a way as to make them inaccessible for climbing from the outside.

Barriers on a property boundary

  • Must not be less than 1800mm high, measured from the ground level on the pool side, and
  • Have no openings that a 100mm sphere could pass through, and
  • Be located not less than 1000mm horizontally from the waters edge, and
  • Have a 900mm high zone on the pool side of the barrier that begins not more than 150mm from the top, and constructed to prevent a child climbing down into the pool area as per F9/AS1.
Barriers with Horizontal Structures

In the event that a barrier has horizontal structures, such as bars, rods, wires or bracing, which are accessible from outside, they must be at least 900 mm apart and there must be no other support or structure (apart from a vertical rail) between them which might make climbing possible for a young child.

Using netting, mesh or perforated material in barrier construction

Steel wire mesh with square openings may be used as an alternative to the solid panel shown in (e) in Figure 1 F9/AS1 provided the openings do not have a side dimension greater than 13 mm. Panels with steel wire mesh having openings measuring between 13 mm and 35 mm on a side shall be not less than 1800 mm high but may have a gap at the base of not more than 100 mm.

The gate

Gates and doors which provide access to pool areas are treated as barriers and must be constructed to comply with the rules given to the barriers (see above). They should be mounted so that:

  • They cannot open inwards towards the pool area
  • There are no obstructions which could stop the gate closing and there must be no means of holding the gate open. 
Other requirements
  • Every gate is fitted with an automatic closing device which will prevent it being left open either accidentally or deliberately
  • The gate catch will not release if it is pulled up or pushed down and the gate cannot be lifted off its hinges
  • It is not possible to raise the gate so that the ground clearance is more than 100 mm.

When a door or window in a wall forms part of a pool fence

Where a door or window in a wall forms part of a pool barrier, the door must not be readily opened by children and must either emit an audible warning or close automatically after use. Window openings must be constructed or positioned to restrict the passage of children.

The latch

Pool gate latch

The latch must be positioned so that it cannot be reached by a child from outside the pool area. This can be achieved by

  • A latch or release located at 1500mm or higher (see photo)
  • Appropriate shielding of the latch as per figure 3 F9/AS1

The self-closer

Self-closing gate

  • The gate should self-close when open 150 mm to fully open
  • To check this, hold your gate open with a 150 mm gap and the gate should close and latch
  • A self-closing hinge is in the photo
  • Ensure that these hinges are at least 900 mm apart as they can create a toe hold point
  • Special non-climbable tops which do comply can be purchased if they are positioned closer than 900 mm apart.

The gap under the fence

Gap under fence The maximum allowable gap under a gate or fence is 100 mm.

The immediate pool area

  • The immediate pool area must be separated with a compliant barrier off from the rest of your backyard
  • It must not contain things like clotheslines, vegetable gardens, children’s play area or tennis courts
  • You must not leave patio furniture or other items close to the pool barrier that could enable climbing
  • It is not permissible for the immediate pool area to be the only pathway leading to other parts of the back yard.

Outside the pool barrier

Diagram illustrating features and objects outside pool barrier

There must be no ground features or objects outside a pool barrier within 1200mm of the top of the barrier that would assist a child in climbing.

Any projections or indentions on the outside face of a pool barrier shall not have a horizontal projection from the face of the pool barrier greater than 10mm unless they are at least 900mm apart vertically.

Pool fencing FAQs

  • Does my swimming or spa pool require a barrier?
    Yes, unless the sides at least 1.2m high above the ground and it is non-climbable.
  • My pool is 1.2 metres above ground - do I need a barrier?
    No, the outside face of a pool wall is an acceptable barrier if it is no less than 1200mm high and complies with Paragraph 2.1.6 and 2.1.7 of F9/AS1. Any ladder or other means of providing access to the pool shall have an enclosing barrier and gate.
  • Does my pool require building consent?
  • Under the Building Act you need a building consent before you can construct a pool and/or pool barrier. There are some instances where this may not apply i.e., so please talk to our inspector for advice.
  • I am digging out a pond in my yard. Do I need to fence this?
    Only if it is to be of a kind normally used for swimming, paddling or bathing.
  • I am a farmer and require a reservoir. Will is require a barrier?
    No, not unless it will normally be used for swimming, paddling or bathing. You may need building and/or resource consent though, depending on size. (The Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment website has information on which ones require a building consent.)
  • I have a river running though my property and I want to install a swimming pool near it. Do I need a barrier for the pool?
    Yes. All new and existing private swimming pools require barriers. Rivers are not covered by the building Act 2004.
  • How high should my barrier be?
    At least 1.2 metres high.
  • What is the maximum gap I am allowed in between vertical palings in my barrier?
    A maximum gap of 100 mm.
  • Why do I need to install a backflow preventer on my hose tap?
    In the event of loss of pressure in your water supply at the same time that you were filling the pool, pool water could be drawn back into the potable water supply which creates a health risk.
  • What type of backflow preventer do I require?
    A swimming pool is classed as a 'medium' risk in the New Zealand Building Code. You will require a medium risk backflow preventer, e.g. permanent air gap separation, reduced pressure zone device, double check valve, atmospheric vacuum breaker or the most common and cheapest  a pressure type vacuum breaker (these can be bought from most plumbing stores for as little as $25).
  • What is a permanent air gap separation?
    If your pool is filled by a permanent connection at least 25 mm above the flood level of your pool, permanent air separation has been achieved and no additional backflow preventer is required.
  • What happens if I cannot install a barrier for my pool?
    You must empty the pool and contact the Council to discuss your options.
  • Why don’t these barrier rules apply to lakes in new residential subdivisions?
    Most of these subdivisions have been granted exemptions under the Fencing of Swimming Pools Act 1987, and since 01.01.2017 they no longer require a barrier or an exemption.
  • Can I fill my pool prior to the barrier being installed? My installer says that I need to.
    No. You must provide a barrier at all times (if the water level exceeds 400 mm in depth).
  • Can I use a temporary contractor’s fence while I build it?
    Yes, but only if it complies with the  requirements for barriers under the Building Act 2004.
  • How can I find out if my pool complies with the Building Act 2004 for pool barriers?
    Inspection by a Council officer is required to confirm that the pool complies with the requirements of the Act. Contact Customer Services to check whether the pool complies. If an existing pool is not registered in the Council database, you will need to complete a Swimming and Spa Pool Registration form and pay the inspection fee. If this inspection results in the need to install a barrier, the Council inspector will be able to advise if a building consent is required.
  • Why do I have to have my pool barrier inspected every three years?
    The Law now requires a 3 yearly inspection to confirm continued compliance.
  • Does a spa pool with a lockable lid require an additional barrier?
    No – providing it has a water surface area of 5m2 or less, every wall of the pool is no less than 760mm above adjacent floor or ground level, the side inhibits climbing, the lid restricts entry to Children and no external objects or projections within 760mm of the top edge that could assist climbing.  The lid must be able to withstand a reasonably foreseeable load (a vertical point load of 200 N (20kg) when imposed over an area of 120mm diameter at the centre of the cover) and can be readily returned to the closed position.  The small heated pool (spa) must have signage to indicate its child safety features including WARNING: This spa pool cover must be kept locked except when under adult supervision.
  • Can I use a thick prickly hedge as a pool barrier?
    No. There is no guarantee that a hedge will remain impenetrable for the life of the pool.
  • Does a blow-up pool that I use for a day or a week at a time require a pool barrier?
    Yes, if the sides are less than 1.2 metres above the surrounding ground and the water is more than 400 mm deep.
  • Can I use my pool area inside the pool barrier as a dog run?
    No, it is not a pool-related activity.
  • Can a property be sold with a pool that does not have a barrier?
    Yes, a sale can proceed, but the purchaser should be aware that there is a requirement for the pool to comply and the responsibility for this transfers to them with the sale of the property. A pool without a barrier should be empty until a complying barrier has been installed.